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- Dictionary of Chemistry by Daintith
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The Facts on File dictionary of inorganic chemistry
The Facts on File Dictionary of Chemistry. Original publisher's paper-covered boards, pictorial frontcover, 3rd edition [large 8vo: pp.
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Your purchase benefits world literacy! Facts On File, Incorporated, Disclaimer:A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. The spine may show signs of wear. Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner inscriptions. Dust jacket quality is not guaranteed.
Checkmark Books, 3rd Edition. Disclaimer:A copy that has been read, but remains in excellent condition. Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting, but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. Disclaimer:A readable copy. A vertical cylindrical steel vessel converter is used, lined with a refractory material. Air is blown over and through the molten iron to oxidize and thereby remove impurities such as carbon, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus by converting them to slag.
For instance, irons containing large amounts of phosphorus are treated in a converter lined with a basic material, so that a phosphate slag is formed. The required amount of carbon is then added to the iron to produce the desired type of steel. The process was in- beryllium hydroxide Be OH 2 A white solid that can be precipitated from beryllium-containing solutions by an alkali. Beryllium hydroxide, like aluminum hydroxide, is amphoteric.
In an excess of alkali, beryllium hydroxide dissolves to give a beryllate, Be OH 42—. In the basic oxygen process, a modern version of the Bessemer process, the air is replaced by a mixture of oxygen and steam in order to minimize the amount of nitrogen that is absorbed by the steel. Many enzymes have active metal atoms and bioinorganic compounds are important in other roles such as protein folding, oxygen transport, and electron transfer.
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Two important examples of bioinorganic compounds are hemoglobin containing iron and chlorophyll containing magnesium. Bethe, Hans Albrecht — German physicist who initiated the subject of crystal field theory in when he analysed the splitting of atomic energy levels by surrounding ligands in terms of group theory. This work led to an understanding of the optical, magnetic, and spectroscopic properties of transition-metal and rare-earth complexes. In particular, he explained the energy of stars in terms of nuclear reactions that fuse hydrogen into helium.
Bethe won the Nobel Prize for physics for this work. See also nitrogen fixation. The prefix indicates the presence of hydrogen; for instance, sodium bisulfate NaHSO4 is sodium hydrogensulfate, etc. It occurs native and in the ores bismuthinite Bi2S3 and bismite Bi2O3. The element does not react with oxygen or water under normal temperatures. It can be dissolved by concentrated nitric acid. It is the most diamagnetic of the metals and has less thermal conductivity than any metal except mercury. Bismuth is widely used in alloys, especially low-melting alloys, which find use in heatactivated sprinkler systems.
The element binary compound A chemical compound formed from two elements; e. Fe2O3 or NaCl. Compounds of bismuth are used in cosmetics and medicines.
It is also used as a catalyst in the textile industry. Symbol: Bi; m. The two steady states are not states of thermodynamic equilibrium There is a sudden jump from one of the bistable states to the other when a certain critical concentration of one of the reactants occurs. See also oscillating reaction. It can be prepared by direct combination of bismuth and chlorine.
It is also a confirmatory test for bismuth in analysis. Bismuth V chloride does not exist. It is a source of iodine, bromine, and some magnesium salts.
It is the most abundant type of coal. Domestic use of coal is practically nonexistent in the U. Bismuth III nitrate oxide is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Black, Joseph —99 Scottish chemist and physicist, one of the first to use quantitative methods in developing modern chemistry.
The idea of latent heat occurred to him in and in subsequent years he determined the latent heat in the formation of ice and steam experimentally. He was careful to distinguish between the concepts of heat and temperature, a distinction that led him to the concept of specific heat. Bloch, Felix —83 Swiss-born American physicist who invented the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance NMR in as did Edward Purcell, independently. This led to the extensive use of NMR in investigating the structue of complex molecules. Bloch and Purcell shared the Nobel Prize for physics for their work in this field.
Bloch also worked on the quantum theory of solids. A mixture of the ore with coke and a flux is fed into the top of the furnace and heated by pre-heated air blown into the bottom of the furnace, where temperatures are much higher. The flux is often calcium oxide from limestone. As it descends the furnace the ore is first reduced to iron II oxide FeO and then to molten iron, both by the action of carbon monoxide CO obtained by burning coke in air. ING body-centered cubic crystal b.viptarif.ru/wp-content/by/3702.php
The Facts on File dictionary of inorganic chemistry - PDF Free Download
A crystal structure in which the unit cell has an atom, ion, or molecule at each corner of a cube and also at the center of the cube. In this type of structure the coordination number is 8. It is less close-packed than the face-centered cubic structure. The alkali metals form crystals with body-centered cubic structures.
See also cubic crystal. Bohr, Niels Hendrik David — Danish physicist. This theory accounted for details of the hydrogen spectrum. Bohr also contributed to nuclear physics, particularly the theory of nuclear fission. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his work on atomic theory. All bleaches are oxidizing agents, and include chlorine, sodium chlorate I solution NaClO, sodium hypochlorite , hydrogen peroxide, and sulfur IV oxide SO2, sulfur dioxide.
Sunlight also has a bleaching effect. It is prepared commercially by passing chlorine through a tilted cylinder down which is passed calcium hydroxide.
Dictionary of Chemistry by Daintith
Bleaching powder has been used for bleaching paper pulp and fabrics and for sterilizing water. Its activity arises from the formation, in the presence of air containing carbon dioxide, of the oxidizing agent chloric I acid hypochlorous acid, HClO : Ca ClO 2. Ca OH 2. Only a small number of atoms have ever been produced. Symbol: Bh; p. Bohr magneton A unit of magnetic moment that is convenient at the atomic level. The Bohr magneton has a value of 9. Its experimental value is 1.
See also atom. Bohr theory A theory introduced by Niels Bohr to explain the spectrum of atomic hydrogen.