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Formal approaches in categorization. A nonparametric Bayesian model of multi-level category learning. Discovering inductive biases in categorization through iterated learning. Sanborn, A.
Rational approximations to rational models: Alternative algorithms for category learning. Psychological Review, 4 , Shi, L. Exemplar models as a mechanism for performing Bayesian inference. Learning invariant features using the Transformed Indian Buffet Process. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems A rational analysis of the effects of memory biases on serial reproduction. Cognitive Psychology, 60, Uncovering mental representations with Markov chain Monte Carlo.
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Effects of generative and discriminative learning on use of category variability. Learning hypothesis spaces and dimensions through concept learning. Modeling transfer learning in human categorization with the hierarchical Dirichlet process. Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Machine Learning. The influence of categories on perception: Explaining the perceptual magnet effect as optimal statistical inference. Modeling human function learning with Gaussian processes. How memory biases affect information transmission: A rational analysis of serial reproduction.
Analyzing human feature learning as nonparametric Bayesian inference. The effect of distributional information on feature learning. Markov chain Monte Carlo with people. Navarro, D. Latent features in similarity judgment: A nonparametric Bayesian approach. Neural Computation, 20, Using category structures to test iterated learning as a method for revealing inductive biases. Cognitive Science, 32, Goodman, N. A rational analysis of rule-based concept learning. Categorization as nonparametric Bayesian density estimation.
Oaksford and N. Chater Eds. The probabilistic mind: Prospects for rational models of cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Compositionality in rational analysis: Grammar-based induction for concept learning. A rational analysis of confirmation with deterministic hypotheses. Performing Bayesian inference with exemplar models. Iwata, T. Parametric embedding for class visualization. Robot designer Hans Moravec , cyberneticist Kevin Warwick and inventor Ray Kurzweil have predicted that humans and machines will merge in the future into cyborgs that are more capable and powerful than either.
Edward Fredkin argues that "artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution", an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler 's " Darwin among the Machines " as far back as , and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in The long-term economic effects of AI are uncertain. A survey of economists showed disagreement about whether the increasing use of robots and AI will cause a substantial increase in long-term unemployment , but they generally agree that it could be a net benefit, if productivity gains are redistributed.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices since antiquity,  and have been a persistent theme in science fiction.
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A common trope in these works began with Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein , where a human creation becomes a threat to its masters. This includes such works as Arthur C. In contrast, the rare loyal robots such as Gort from The Day the Earth Stood Still and Bishop from Aliens are less prominent in popular culture.
Isaac Asimov introduced the Three Laws of Robotics in many books and stories, most notably the "Multivac" series about a super-intelligent computer of the same name. Asimov's laws are often brought up during lay discussions of machine ethics;  while almost all artificial intelligence researchers are familiar with Asimov's laws through popular culture, they generally consider the laws useless for many reasons, one of which is their ambiguity. Transhumanism the merging of humans and machines is explored in the manga Ghost in the Shell and the science-fiction series Dune. In the s, artist Hajime Sorayama 's Sexy Robots series were painted and published in Japan depicting the actual organic human form with lifelike muscular metallic skins and later "the Gynoids" book followed that was used by or influenced movie makers including George Lucas and other creatives.
Sorayama never considered these organic robots to be real part of nature but always unnatural product of the human mind, a fantasy existing in the mind even when realized in actual form. Several works use AI to force us to confront the fundamental of question of what makes us human, showing us artificial beings that have the ability to feel , and thus to suffer. Dick considers the idea that our understanding of human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence.
See also: Logic machines in fiction and List of fictional computers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 22 September For other uses, see AI disambiguation and Artificial intelligence disambiguation. Intelligence demonstrated by machines. Main articles: History of artificial intelligence and Timeline of artificial intelligence. Main articles: Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge. Main article: Automated planning and scheduling. Main article: Machine learning.
Main article: Natural language processing. Main articles: Machine perception , Computer vision , and Speech recognition. Main article: Robotics.
Main article: Affective computing. Main articles: Artificial general intelligence and AI-complete. Main articles: Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience. Main article: Symbolic AI.
Main articles: Search algorithm , Mathematical optimization , and Evolutionary computation. Main articles: Logic programming and Automated reasoning. Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption. Main articles: Classifier mathematics , Statistical classification , and Machine learning. Main articles: Artificial neural network and Connectionism.
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Main article: Deep learning. Main article: Recurrent neural networks. Further information: Progress in artificial intelligence and Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence. Main article: Applications of artificial intelligence.
Main article: Artificial intelligence in healthcare. Main article: driverless cars. Main article: Artificial intelligence in government. See also: Mass surveillance in China. Main article: Artificial intelligence video games. Further information: Artificial intelligence arms race , Lethal autonomous weapon , and Unmanned combat aerial vehicle. Further information: Computer art. Main articles: Philosophy of artificial intelligence and Ethics of artificial intelligence.